US imperialism spreads across Latin America through military bases
and trade deals, corporate exploitation and debt. It also relies on a
vast communications surveillance network, the recent uncovering of which
laid bare Washington’s reach into the region’s streets and halls of
power. Yet more than McDonald’s and bullets, an empire depends on fear,
and fear of the empire is lacking these days in Latin America.
|Medellín, Colombia, 1968. Photo by Gabriel Carvajal Pérez|
The controversy stirred up by Edward Snowden’s leaked documents
reached the region on July 7th, when the first of a series of articles
drawing from the leaks were published in the major Brazilian newspaper O Globo.
The articles outlined how the US National Security Agency (NSA) had for
years been spying on and indiscriminately collecting the emails and
telephone records of millions of people in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia,
Mexico, Peru, and Argentina, just as it had done in the US, Europe and
The articles pointed out that data collection bases were located in
Bogota, Caracas, Mexico City and Panama City, with an additional station
in Brasilia which was used to spy on foreign satellite communications.
The NSA gathered military and security data in certain countries, and
acquired information on the oil industry in Venezuela and energy sector
in Mexico, both of which are largely under state control, beyond the
reach of US corporations and investors.
As with the spying program in the US, Snowden’s leaks demonstrate
that this method of collecting communications in Latin America was done
with the collusion of private telecommunications companies in the US and
Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff called the spying a “violation of
sovereignty and human rights.” The presidents of Brazil, Bolivia,
Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela and other nations in the region condemned
Washington for its actions and called for an inquiry into the
“A shiver went down my back when we learned that they are spying on
us from the north,” Argentina’s President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
said in a speech. “More than revelations, these are confirmations of
what we thought was happening.”
Indeed, the region is no stranger to US spying and interference. And
with the election of leftist presidents across Latin America over the
past decade, it should come as no surprise that the US has been spying
into what Secretary of State John Kerry recently referred to as
The shadow of 20th century dictatorships hangs over much of Latin
America, orienting the region’s democratic processes and struggles for
justice. Brazil’s Rousseff and Uruguayan President José Mujica are among
today’s various Latin American presidents who were active in the social
movements fighting against brutal US-backed dictatorships in their
Rousseff was jailed for her activism from 1970-1972, and Mujica was
shot by the police six times, tortured and imprisoned for 14 years,
including being confined to the bottom of a well for over two years.
Under the leadership of Nestor and Cristina Kirchner, Argentina has
sought justice for the some 30,000 people disappeared during that
nation’s dictatorship. Needless to say, the legacy of US-backed coups,
right-wing spying networks, and police states looms large in Latin
American politics and recent memory.
So when Snowden’s leaked documents pointed to contemporary spying, it
harkened back to Washington’s Cold War allies who, through coordinated
efforts like Operation Condor, collaborated regionally to monitor
dissidents and supposed communists, intercepting mail and spying on
phone communications as a part of their continental nightmare.
But the Cold War is over, and from Argentina to Venezuela leftist
politics have dominated the region’s landscape over the past decade,
labor and indigenous movements have been on the rise, and a decidedly
anti-imperialist stance has been common on campaign platforms and
While Washington has succeeded in supporting coups against
left-leaning leaders in Honduras and Paraguay in recent years, a
US-dominated regional trade agreement was shot down, its military bases
have been pushed out of certain areas, US policy in the war on drugs is
meeting resistance in key countries, and Latin American governments are
going elsewhere for loans and aid. As a historic shift in politics has
taken place south of the US border, Washington has often appeared out of
touch and grasping for allies.
In this context, leftist Bolivian President Evo Morales’ plane was
grounded in Europe upon its return home from Russia on July 2nd. US
officials behind the grounding of the plane believed Snowden, currently
based in a Moscow airport, was on Morales’ flight, as the whistleblower
was seeking asylum in South America.
Upon returning to Bolivia, where a meeting was convened among Latin
American leaders to address the US and European nations’ action against
Morales, the Bolivian president said "the United States is using its
agent [Snowden] and the president [of Bolivia] to intimidate the whole
Latin American presidents across the board were outraged at the
actions against Morales, and Venezuela, Nicaragua and Bolivia all
offered asylum to Snowden in a protest against the US and in solidarity
with the whistleblower. Others said they would help to protect him from
When US Vice President Joe Biden pressured Ecuadoran President Rafael
Correa to not give asylum to Snowden, Correa thumbed his nose at the
US, renouncing $23 million in US trade benefits, and offering those
funds instead for training of US officials on civil liberties and human
In regards to the spying revelations and to the grounding of Morales’
plane, Correa told reporters, “We're not 500 years behind. This Latin
America of the 21st century is independent, dignified and sovereign."
In all of the data that the US gathered across the region, it missed
one crucial fact: that Latin America is no longer Washington’s backyard.
In spite of the empire’s wide reach, there are places where it will
always be defied, in the telephone booths and dreams of a world that it
will never truly own.
Dangl has worked as a journalist throughout Latin America, covering
social movements and politics in the region for over a decade. He is the
author of the books Dancing with Dynamite: Social Movements and States in Latin America, and The Price of Fire: Resource Wars and Social Movements in Bolivia. Dangl is currently a doctoral student in Latin American History at McGill University, and edits UpsideDownWorld.org, a website on activism and politics in Latin America, and TowardFreedom.com, a progressive perspective on world events. Email: BenDangl(at)gmail(dot)com.
Source: Toward Freedom